A cancer diagnosis of your four-legged companion is a shock for dog owners. No wonder: half of all dogs over the age of ten die from a malignant tumor. But what types of cancer are there in dogs?, What are the most aggressive dog cancer?. We inform you about which cancer diseases can affect dogs.
What types of cancer do dogs have?
In medicine, it is common to name the types of cancer after the affected tissue or after the type of tumor. The latter determines the question of which cancer cell type we are dealing with.
The most common cancer cells in dogs are:
- Squamous cell carcinoma
So we can speak of “skin cancer” or of a “basalioma of the skin.” However, diagnosing cancer can be difficult because the veterinarian needs tissue for this, which sometimes requires surgery. This does not always make sense for old and weakened animals. The therapy depends both on the location as well as on the nature of the particular tumor.
Skin cancer in the dog
Older dogs, in particular, are prone to skin tumors, i.e., new tissue formation on the skin.
The good news is that around two-thirds of all dog skin tumors are benign.
Benign tumors are, for example, warts or small nodules filled with fat, so-called lipomas, and basal cell tumors. The most common malignant skin tumors in dogs include mast cell tumors . Especially boxers are affected. Dog skin cancer can also show up in the form of squamous cell carcinoma. Since metastases rarely occur, the chances of recovery are high. The prerequisite for this is that the veterinarian can altogether remove the carcinoma. Melanomas can be benign or malignant. Especially melanoma on hairless areas turns out to be cancer. They tend to scatter in the lymph nodes, abdomen, or lungs.
For female dogs: cancer in the milk crest and ovaries
The most common cancer in bitches is cancer in the milk bar. If tumors appear here, they are malignant in half of the cases.
A castration before the second heat lowers the risk of this disease. Females rarely develop ovarian cancer. Signs of this are water accumulation in the abdomen or hormonal disorders. During operation, the veterinarian often removes both the ovaries and the uterus.
In males: cancer of the prostate and testicles
Prostate cancer mostly occurs in older, medium-sized to large males. The first signs are increased urination or constipation and loss of appetite. Unfortunately, prostate cancer often metastasizes in dogs. Testicular tumors develop, mostly when the testicles have not descended on both sides in puppy age. One or both testicles are then in the abdominal cavity or the inguinal canal. Due to the higher ambient temperature, tumors develop faster here. Neutering cannot protect the dog from prostate cancer. But removing undescended testicles before the second year of life protects the dog from testicular cancer.
Blood cancer in the dog
Blood cancer is relatively common in dogs compared to other cancers. It is usually a malignant lymphoma, which is also known as lymphosarcoma or leukosis. The tumor affects the lymphocytes and thus mainly occurs in the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. If there are tumor cells in the blood, it is leukemia. With blood cancer, chemotherapy can significantly extend the life of the dog, depending on its stage. Up to a quarter of the dogs can be cured with chemotherapy.
Bone cancer in the dog
We speak of bone cancer when tumors develop on the skeleton of the dog. These tumors are primarily osteosarcomas. They destroy the bones and lead to lameness and pain. Osteosarcomas form metastases. If the amputation of the affected limb is not possible, radiation can relieve the symptoms.
Brain tumors primarily affect older dogs. Neurological failures such as swaying or seizures, and suddenly changing behavior can be signs of a brain tumor in the dog. Depending on where the cancer is located, which can dog blind are. It is often not possible to surgically remove the brain tumor. In many cases, radiation can give the dog a few months or even years with a good quality of life.
Dog nasal cancer
Older dogs may occasionally develop nasal or nasal cancer. It is associated with a runny nose, sneezing, or deformation of the skull. Tumors in this area are usually malignant. Operations are rarely possible there. In some cases, radiation can give the dog more lifespan.
Dangerous spleen cancer in dogs
In contrast to cats, spleen tumors are more common in dogs. Most of these are hemangiosarcomas that tend to metastasize. Detected early enough, the vet can remove the spleen and then perform chemotherapy. Older German Shepherds are often affected.
Lung cancer and kidney cancer in dogs are rare.
We speak of lung cancer when the tumors of cancer first appear in the lungs. In this case, these are primary tumors in the lungs. Secondary tumors are metastases, so cancer has spread. In animals, it is not always possible to determine where a tumor first appears. Lung cancer is rare in dogs—no measuring probes in the lungs.
Also, “kidney cancer” with outgoing from the kidney tumors is sporadic in dogs. However, other types of cancer metastasize into the kidney tissue so that the kidney tumor can be noticed first—likewise, one pancreatic cancer to the rare dog diseases. In principle, like in humans, cancer can form on every organ or part of the dog’s body.
What is the difference between benign and malignant cancer?
Both benign and malignant cancer can often be treated well.
Cancer can spread. This can be done in adjacent tissue but also towards lymph nodes, lungs, liver, bones, or other organs. We call this metastasis.
Benign tumors do not spread.
When a tumor has spread, a tiny piece of tissue is released. The amount of tissue flows through the body with tissue fluid (lymph) or blood. New tumors can grow where the tissue piece gets stuck.
When discovering a tumor, these metastases can sometimes be microscopic. Metastases of cancer in a dog’s lungs
The most common symptoms of canine cancer are
- Abnormal thicknesses (a growth)
- Losing weight / abnormal appetite
- Shortness of breath or coughing
- Decreased stamina
- Lameness or stiffness
- Drinking and peeing a lot
- Difficulty urinating or defecating
- Wounds that don’t heal
- Blood loss or bleeding
- Deviating odor
What is the treatment for canine cancer?
The treatment differs per cancer type. Cancer can be treated with surgery, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, or radiation. Immunotherapy is on the rise in veterinary medicine.
In some cases, your vet may present different treatment options. For example, a tumor can be operated on or irradiated.
In other cases, treatments are combined. For example, after surgery, chemotherapy is possible to slow down the growth of metastases.
Does an animal with cancer need a special diet?
Eating healthy can reduce the chances of getting certain cancers. If a dog has cancer, he must eat enough. Any complete diet will do.
What can the Medical treatment do?
Examines and treats many cancer patients.
These animals are referred to because we:
- Have special equipment ( CT scan, MRI scan, a significant X-ray table, a more expensive ultrasound machine, and an internal examination ( endoscopy ).
- Specialized surgeons and orthopedic surgeons have a lot of experience in less standard procedures.
- I have a lot of experience with chemotherapy.
- Have a good relationship with the radiation department of Utrecht University.
- Honest advice on the best treatment and say if we find that you better not start treatment.
Tips: signs of cancer in dogs
The faster cancer is recognized in dogs, the better the chances of a cure!
If you notice any of the following signs, you should go to the vet with your four-legged friend:
- Knots under or on the skin
- Weight loss or sudden increase
- suddenly different, foul body odor
- Bleeding from the orifices
- the dog appears apathetic and weak
- heavy breath, cough
- Wounds that don’t heal
Veterinary Oncology: What to Do With Lumps and Bumps on …. https://todaysveterinarypractice.com/tumor-detection-dogs-cats/